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Impact of civil rights laws. Article review.
The article called “Impact of the Civil Rights Laws”, created by the U.S. Department of Education, Office for Civil Rights on January 1999 and available online at http://www.ed.gov/about/offices/list/ocr/docs/impact.html speaks about the US Congress initiative to prohibit discrimination in educational process. The congress understood the current situation that did not provide equal opportunities for “minorities, women, individuals with disabilities and older persons” and the barriers that prevented these groups from acquiring the necessary education.
There exist 4 main barriers deemed discriminatory that the US congress targets effectively:
- Racial Barriers. This kind of barrier discriminated based on the color of the skin and the race and was resolved in the following manner. The Dropout rate of African-American students was decreased. The high school graduation rates of Blacks have increased. The participation of the blacks in the AP (advanced placement) classes had increased. The blacks’ participation in the NAEP (national assessment of educational progress) had increased and thus narrowed the gap between the white and black students. The blacks were encouraged to participate in the SAT and study to increase their scores. The minority enrollment in colleges would also increase. The minority groups were given more opportunities to attend college/university and the number of those who graduated increased.
- Gender barriers. Both males and females were encouraged to take the same classes in math. Females were instructed and increased their SAT tests gradually over the past few decades. Females were prompted to attend athletic clubs which allowed females to represent on average 15% of college athletes teams. Females were then given a boost to attend colleges and earn their degrees and after the title IX came into existence in 1972, females were given more job opportunities namely in medicine or other male-dominated fields.
- Disability barriers. Some 30 years ago people with disabilities would be denied the right to study in school or university if that school was unable to accommodate that person. At present after the introduction of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) and other disability laws would give these people another chance. The US department of education supervised the school desire to accommodate students with disabilities. After IDEA was created many more disabled students would attend regular schools rather than special educational institutions. These disabled people after getting an opportunity to study are given a chance to and are already employed in many competitive industries.
- Age barriers. After numerous anti-discriminatory statutes were passed it became much easier for older people to attend educational institutions such as colleges. The article found at http://www.ed.gov/about/offices/list/ocr/docs/impact.html comments on many more (about 300% more) people aged 35 years plus attending universities in the 90s than in the 70s.